température océan atlantique

[6], The Gulf Stream and its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift is thought to have at least some influence on climate. For their own safety, the crew jettisoned two nuclear bombs, which were never recovered. [6], The oceans are the major source of the atmospheric moisture that is obtained through evaporation. [17], The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays, gulfs and seas. Total catches have been fluctuating since the 1970s; reaching 3.9 million tons in 2013 or slightly less than the peak production in 2010. North Atlantic Deep Water flows southward below the thermocline of the subtropical gyre. [13], The Pond is a term often used by British and American speakers in context to the Northern Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement. The excess of oxygen-depleting chemicals leads to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone. 60,000 years ago? The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953,[17] but some of these definitions have been revised since then and some are not used by various authorities, institutions, and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. [89], Marine debris, which is also known as marine litter, describes human-created waste floating in a body of water. 代尔堡, Map showing location of Fort Lauderdale (26.122310, -80.143380). [58], West Gondwana (South America and Africa) broke up in the Early Cretaceous to form the South Atlantic. [11] In contrast, the term "Atlantic" originally referred specifically to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast. [92] Currently, there is no cost-effective way to mine or extract gold from the ocean to make a profit. The formation of the isthmus resulted in the migration and extinction of many land-living animals, known as the Great American Interchange, but the closure of the seaway resulted in a "Great American Schism" as it affected ocean currents, salinity, and temperatures in both the Atlantic and Pacific. [25], The MAR rises 2–3 km (1.2–1.9 mi) above the surrounding ocean floor and its rift valley is the divergent boundary between the North American and Eurasian plates in the North Atlantic and the South American and African plates in the South Atlantic. [87], In the Eastern Central Atlantic small pelagic fishes constitute about 50% of landings with sardine reaching 0.6–1.0 million tons per year. Pelagic fish stocks are considered fully fished or overfished, with sardines south of Cape Bojador the notable exception. The swimming … In general, winds transport moisture and air over land areas. The slave trade was officially abolished in the British Empire and the United States in 1808, and slavery itself was abolished in the British Empire in 1838 and in the United States in 1865 after the Civil War. Following rapid climate changes at the end of the LGM this region was repopulated by Magdalenian culture. Horse mackerel and hake are the most important species, together representing almost half of the landings. Various estimates date the propagation of sea-floor spreading in this segment to the period 120–96 Ma. No later than 130 Ma rifting had reached the Walvis Ridge–Rio Grande Rise. [44], The location of the spawning ground for European eels remained unknown for decades. England, France, and the Dutch Republic enviously watched the Spanish and Portuguese wealth grow and allied themselves with pirates such as Henry Mainwaring and Alexandre Exquemelin. A third of this water becomes part of the deep portion of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). In the early 19th century it was discovered that the southern Sargasso Sea is the spawning ground for both the European and American eel and that the former migrate more than 5,000 km (3,100 mi) and the latter 2,000 km (1,200 mi). The warmest Pornichet sea water temperatures in the middle of August require something like a … La température de l'océan Atlantique, sur les côtes canadiennes, continue de grimper, selon la plus récente étude sur les conditions océanographiques de Pêches et Océans Canada. [4] The average depth is 3,646 m (11,962 ft) and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,376 m (27,480 ft). Minimum : 33°F/Maximum : 84°F Température de l'eau de l'océan atlantique en février Visualiser les conditions éoliennes, météorologiques, océanographiques et de pollution actuelles, telles que prévues par des superordinateurs, sur une carte animée interactive. The ice season is longer in the polar regions, but there is little shipping in those areas. Since man-made substances were introduced into the environment, the path of the NADW can be traced throughout its course by measuring tritium and radiocarbon from nuclear weapon tests in the 1960s and CFCs. The North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 (16,020,000 sq mi) (11.5%) and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2 (15,550,000 sq mi) (11.1%). [37], The clockwise warm-water North Atlantic Gyre occupies the northern Atlantic, and the counter-clockwise warm-water South Atlantic Gyre appears in the southern Atlantic. During the LGM the Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of northern North America while Beringia connected Siberia to Alaska. In contrast, 8–7 kya-old shell middens in Portugal, Denmark, and Brazil generated thousands of tons of debris and artefacts. [31] The exploration of the MAR in the 1950s led to the general acceptance of seafloor spreading and plate tectonics. Get the forecast for today, tonight & tomorrow's weather for Atlantique, NY. Coarse sand, boulders, and rocks were transported into some areas, such as off the coast of Nova Scotia or the Gulf of Maine during the Pleistocene ice ages. Stocks of invertebrates, in contrast, remain at record levels of abundance. The temperatures given are the sea surface temperature (SST) which is most relevant to recreational users. [6], Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office.[6]. [68] During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) 20,000 years ago humans had to abandon their initial settlements along the European North Atlantic coast and retreat to the Mediterranean. [35], The North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a complex of four water masses, two that form by deep convection in the open ocean — Classical and Upper Labrador Sea Water — and two that form from the inflow of dense water across the Greenland-Iceland-Scotland sill — Denmark Strait and Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water. The reduced quantities of shells in the lower levels can represent the few shells that were exported inland.[72]. Non-linked temperatures in the monthly columns are average water temperatures. [69] The European coasts of the North Atlantic were permanently populated about 9–8.5 thousand years ago. The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi). The Rockall Trough opened between 105 and 84 million years ago although along the rift failed along with one leading into the Bay of Biscay. North Atlantic Central Water can be divided into the Eastern and Western North Atlantic central Water since the western part is strongly affected by the Gulf Stream and therefore the upper layer is closer to underlying fresher subpolar intermediate water. It is possible that the population in the Sargasso Sea migrated to the Atlantic as the Tethys closed at the end of the Miocene around 17 Ma. For instance, in spite of 7 km thick basalt, Gunnbjorn Field in East Greenland is the highest point on the island, elevated enough that it exposes older Mesozoic sedimentary rocks at its base, similar to old lava fields above sedimentary rocks in the uplifted Hebrides of western Scotland. Precipitation can be approximated from coastal weather data and air temperature from water temperatures. (Complete List of Average Temperatures) Use the near real-time water temperature data with discretion, because they may contain errors. The Landnámabók (Book of Settlement) records disastrous famines during the first century of settlement — "men ate foxes and ravens" and "the old and helpless were killed and thrown over cliffs" — and by the early 1200s hay had to be abandoned for short-season crops such as barley. Meteo Paris - … Together these three tectonic forces are slowly developing into a new subduction system in the eastern Atlantic Basin. The Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. Average water temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean Arctic Tropics Temperate °C °F °C °F °C °F; January-1: 30.2: 27.4: 81.4: 13.2: 55.7: February-1.4: 29.5: 27.1: 80.8: 12.8: 55.1: March-1.6: 28: 27.1: 80.8: 12.7: 54.8: April-1.4: 29.5: 27.6: 81.6: 13.6: 56.5: May-1.4: 29.9: 28.1: 82.5: 15.3: 59.6: June-1.2: 29.8: 28.3: 83: 17.5: 63.5: July: 0.1: 32.3: 28.3: 83: 19.3: 66.7: August: 2.9: 37.3: 29: 84.2: 20.5: 68.9: September: … L'étude s'est concentrée sur 11 modèles informatiques qui reproduisaient le plus fidèlement les différentes strates de température de l'océan Atlantique nord. [47], Hurricanes are a hazard in the western parts of the North Atlantic during the summer and autumn. Following these explorations, Spain and Portugal quickly conquered and colonized large territories in the New World and forced the Amerindian population into slavery in order to explore the vast quantities of silver and gold they found. It is governed by ocean currents from marginal seas and regional topography, rather than being steered by wind, both in the deep ocean and at sea level. [43] The origin of the Sargasso fauna and flora remained enigmatic for centuries. [67], Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) studies indicate that 80–60,000 years ago a major demographic expansion within Africa, derived from a single, small population, coincided with the emergence of behavioral complexity and the rapid MIS 5–4 environmental changes. In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in later maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. Growth was more rapid in non-absolutist countries, such as Britain and the Netherlands, and more limited in absolutist monarchies, such as Portugal, Spain, and France, where profit mostly or exclusively benefited the monarchy and its allies. Other hunter-gatherers followed in waves interrupted by large-scale hazards such as the Laacher See volcanic eruption, the inundation of Doggerland (now the North Sea), and the formation of the Baltic Sea. 50 kya-old, deeply stratified shell middens found in Ysterfontein on the western coast of South Africa are associated with the Middle Stone Age (MSA). Météo des plages de l'océan Atlantique La façade Atlantique dispose en majorité de grandes plages de sable fin, souvent bien animées tout au long de l'année. Le Gulf Stream (et sa prolongation, la dérive d'Atlantique nord) apportent de l'eau chaude et salée au nord-est de l'Atlantique, en chauffant l'Europe de l'ouest. The fossils found in the Carpathians in the mid-20th century, often called the "quasi-Sargasso assemblage", finally showed that this assemblage originated in the Carpathian Basin from where it migrated over Sicily to the Central Atlantic where it evolved into modern species of the Sargasso Sea. The coldest zones are in high latitudes, with the coldest regions corresponding to the areas covered by sea ice. The earliest exploitation, however, took place on the now submerged shelves, and most settlements now excavated were then located several kilometers from these shelves. In the western Atlantic carbonate platforms dominate large areas, for example, the Blake Plateau and Bermuda Rise. Changes in the formation of NADW have been linked to global climate changes in the past. This did not last, however, and temperatures quickly dropped; at 1080 CE summer temperatures had reached a maximum of 5 °C (41 °F). Another important species was the Brazilian sardinella, with a production of 100,000 tons in 2013 it is now considered overfished. [1] Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km (69,510 mi) compared to 135,663 km (84,297 mi) for the Pacific. The NADW is fed by a flow of warm shallow water into the northern North Atlantic which is responsible for the anomalous warm climate in Europe. The Gulf Stream also keeps extreme temperatures from occurring on the Florida Peninsula. A USAF C-124 aircraft from Dover Air Force Base, Delaware was carrying three nuclear bombs over the Atlantic Ocean when it experienced a loss of power. The mean depth between 60°N and 60°S is 3,730 m (12,240 ft), or close to the average for the global ocean, with a modal depth between 4,000 and 5,000 m (13,000 and 16,000 ft).[25]. [81][82], From Columbus to the Industrial Revolution Trans-Atlantic trade, including colonialism and slavery, became crucial for Western Europe. For European countries with direct access to the Atlantic (including Britain, France, the Netherlands, Portugal, and Spain) 1500–1800 was a period of sustained growth during which these countries grew richer than those in Eastern Europe and Asia. The MSA population was small and dispersed and the rate of their reproduction and exploitation was less intense than those of later generations. In the South Atlantic the Walvis Ridge and Rio Grande Rise form barriers to ocean currents. Both these currents receive some contribution from the Indian Ocean. Saison cyclonique dans l'océan Atlantique sud‎ – 1 C Pages dans la catégorie « Climat de l'océan Atlantique » Cette catégorie contient les 6 pages suivantes. The North Atlantic garbage patch is estimated to be hundreds of kilometers across in size.[90]. Maximum temperatures occur north of the equator, and minimum values are found in the polar regions. Evaporation, precipitation, river inflow and sea ice melting influence surface salinity values. [6] Fisheries have, however, undergone significant changes since the 1950s and global catches can now be divided into three groups of which only two are observed in the Atlantic: fisheries in the Eastern Central and South-West Atlantic oscillate around a globally stable value, the rest of the Atlantic is in overall decline following historical peaks. The NADW, in its turn, feeds the meridional overturning circulation (MOC), the northward heat transport of which is threatened by anthropogenic climate change. Gold deposits are a mile or two under water on the ocean floor, however the deposits are also encased in rock that must be mined through. Traces of magmatism in both offshore and onshore basins in the central and southern segments have been dated to 147–49 Ma with two peaks between 143 and 121 Ma and 90–60 Ma. [9] In these uses, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who later appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and also lent his name to modern atlases. December average water temperature in Atlantic City is 9.1°C/48.4°F, the minimum temperature is 4.4°C/39.9°F, and the maximum is 13.6°C/56.5°F. In the middle latitudes, the area of maximum temperature variations, values may vary by 7–8 °C (13–14 °F). The South Atlantic Central Water originates in this gyre, while Antarctic Intermediate Water originates in the upper layers of the circumpolar region, near the Drake Passage and the Falkland Islands. In latitudes above 40° North some east–west oscillation, known as the North Atlantic oscillation, occurs. Because of the ocean's great capacity to store and release heat, maritime climates are more moderate and have less extreme seasonal variations than inland climates. [33], The Atlantic Ocean consists of four major, upper water masses with distinct temperature and salinity. For example, the Gulf Stream helps moderate winter temperatures along the coastline of southeastern North America, keeping it warmer in winter along the coast than inland areas. 211):[7] Atlantikôi pelágei (Greek: Ἀτλαντικῷ πελάγει; English: 'the Atlantic sea'; etym. Arctic Intermediate Water, flows from north to become the source for North Atlantic Deep Water south of the Greenland-Scotland sill. The biggest culprits are rivers and with them many agriculture fertilizer chemicals as well as livestock and human waste. [86], Endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales. The African origin of this modern behaviour is evidenced by 70,000 years-old engravings from Blombos Cave, South Africa. [1][18], Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 (41,100,000 sq mi) or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 (74,471,500 cu mi) or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. [51], The opening of the Atlantic Ocean coincided with the initial break-up of the supercontinent Pangaea, both of which were initiated by the eruption of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP), one of the most extensive and voluminous large igneous provinces in Earth's history associated with the Triassic–Jurassic extinction event, one of Earth's major extinction events. [24], The MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two-halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. Atlantic Ocean, body of salt water covering about one-fifth of Earth’s surface and separating the continents of Europe and Africa to the east from those of North and South America to the west.

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