guerre libye 2011

[381] Islamic leaders and clerics in Libya, notably the Network of Free Ulema – Libya urged all Muslims to rebel against Gaddafi. These elections were planned to coincide with the Jamahiriya's usual periodic elections for the Popular Committees, Basic People's Committees, Basic People's Congresses, and General People's Congresses, in 2010. [62], On 8 September, Naji Barakat, the Health Minister of the National Transitional Council, stated that about half of an estimated 30,000 dead were believed to have been pro-Gaddafi fighters. By 3 March, the situation was described as a logistical nightmare, with the World Health Organization warning of the risk of epidemics. [162] The council began to refer to itself as the Libyan Republic and by March had a website. Al-quaeda started bombing. [148][149] In Tripoli, television and public radio stations had been sacked, and protesters set fire to security buildings, Revolutionary Committee offices, the interior ministry building, and the People's Hall.[150][151]. [86] A broadly secular society was imposed. Volunteers reportedly guarded the port, local banks and oil terminals to keep the oil flowing. The ambassadors to the Arab League, European Union and United Nations have either resigned or stated that they no longer support the government. The boy, who had previously been a shepherd in Chad, told that a Libyan man had offered him a job and a free flight to Tripoli, but in the end he had been airlifted to shoot opposition members in Eastern Libya. ", "На стороне Каддафи воюют белорусские партизаны", "Белорусские военные позволяют армии Каддафи противостоять НАТО", "Libya's Opposition Leadership Comes into Focus", "Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son, "Feature Report – Long summer of civil war in Libya", "Jordan begins Libya police training programme", "Gadhafi Asks Obama To Call Off NATO Military Campaign", "Libya: How the Opposing Sides Are Armed", "Prisoners in Libya languish without charge", "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war", "Libyan Rebels Accused of Arbitrary Arrests, Torture", "There Was No Libyan Peaceful Protest,     :      Information Clearing House: ICH", "UN silent despite no basis for NATO's illegal war on Libya - Scoop News", "Libyan rebel commander admits his fighters have al-Qaeda links",, Articles with dead external links from November 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, 5,904–6,626 opposition fighters and supporters killed (other estimates: see, 3,309–4,227 soldiers killed (other estimates: see. [350], Finally, it remains unsettled whether or not the rebels' overthrow of Gaddafi's government following the fall of Tripoli in August 2011 changed the nature of the conflict again. Music has been controlled and dissenting cultural figures have been arrested or tortured in Arab Spring countries, including Libya. In October the fighting diminished, and the rebels declared victory. By ANDREW GLASS. [358][359] The Islamic Relief and the WFP also coordinated a shipment of humanitarian supplies to Misrata. [184], The Swedish peace research institute SIPRI reported flights between Tripoli and a dedicated military base in Belarus which only handles stockpiled weaponry and military equipment. Libyan security forces fired live ammunition into the armed protests. ", "Kenya: 'Dogs of War' Fighting for Gaddafi", "afrol News – Libya, Chad row over "mercenaries, "Gaddafi Hiring Tuareg Warriors as Mercenaries in Libya: Reports", "Gaddafi Recruits 800 Tuareg Mercenaries", "The Irish teen who tracks and kills Gaddafi's snipers", "European mercenaries fighting for Gaddafi, expert says", "Text Message from a House in Libya: We Are Being Slaughtered Here", "Defying Gadhafi's Crackdown; Analysis with Dr. Drew Pinsky; Interview with Kevin Smith", "Gaddafi's Fleeing Mercenaries Describe the Collapse of the Regime", "Benghazi Doctor: Gadhafi Using Foreign Mercenaries to Quell Protests", "Africans say Libyan troops try to make them fight", "World Report 2012: Rights Trends in World Report 2012: Libya", "Comment j'ai mis 8 millions de libyens sur écoute", "Desperate Gaddafi Bombs Protesters, Blocks Internet", "Libya: Governments Should Demand End to Unlawful Killings", "The Editors: The Difficulty of Reporting from Inside Libya", "Libya Fights Protesters with Snipers, Grenades", "Libya Witness: 'It's Time for Revolt. In September, the Gaddafi stronghold of Bani Walid was besieged by rebels, who reported that Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam was hiding in the city. [17], Reports by EU experts stated that Gaddafi's government hired between 300 and 500 European soldiers, including some from EU countries, at high wages. [218] According to the Reuters report, Qatar was already marketing crude petroleum from oil fields in the territories controlled by the rebels and had sent "gasoline, diesel and liquefied petroleum gas" in the same areas. ", "Chinese evacuation from Libya via Malta ends", "Libya: Muammar Gaddafi Subject to ICC Arrest Warrant", "Interpol issues arrest warrant for Muammar Gaddafi", Libya: Examination of intervention and collapse and the UK's future policy options, "MPs deliver damning verdict on Cameron's Libya intervention", Libya: Libya attacks criticised by Arab League, China, Russia and India, "Oil jumps after Western attacks on Libya", "African roles in the Libyan conflict of 2011", Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Fist Crushing a U.S. [172] NATO's Supreme Allied Commander James G. Stavridis stated that intelligence reports suggested there were "flickers" of al-Qaeda activity among rebels, but that there was insufficient information to confirm a significant presence of terrorist groups. Piers Morgan Explores the Man at the Center of Libya's Uprising", "With NATO's Operation Odyssey Dawn Launch, Strategic Dimensions Come into Focus", "Libyan Royal Family Seeking Swedish Asylum", "Benghazi, Cradle of Revolt, Condemns Gaddafi", "Protesters Defy Gaddafi as International Pressure Mounts (1st Lead)", "Middle Eastern Media See End of Gaddafi", "Libya: Gaddafi Forces Attacking Rebel-Held Benghazi", "Libya: urgent to apply the rules of war", "Gaddafi relatives offered Malta Armed Forces bribes – Clinton ally", "Canada turns commitment into clout in Libya", "Libya: U.S. Tomahawk Cruise Missiles Hit Targets in Libya", "Libya: US, UK and France attack Gaddafi forces", "French Fighter Jets Deployed over Libya", "France Uses Unexplosive Bombs in Libya: Spokesman", "Polled N.J. One of the alleged mercenaries speaking from a hospital in North Africa stated that around 19 South Africans had been contracted by different companies for the operation.[236]. [215][217], Reuters had reported in May 2011 that rebels from eastern Libya – where Ghaddafi's rule had ended in early February – were negotiating with Qatari banks to "facilitate international money transfers in rebel-held areas, a move aimed at recapitalising banks and boosting the economy through trade. [168] Rebel group primarily initiated from Misrati, Zentan and Derna. [193], In the eastern city of Bayda, anti-government forces hanged two policemen who were involved in trying to disperse demonstrations. [356] On 25 February, the International Committee of the Red Cross launched an emergency appeal for US$6,400,000 to meet the emergency needs of people affected by the violent unrest in Libya. [107] He stated that the ministries were failing to manage the country's oil revenues,[108] and that his "dream during all these years was to give power and wealth directly to the people". [231], A witness stated that mercenaries were more willing to kill demonstrators than Libyan forces were, and earned a reputation as among the most brutal forces employed by the government. [71] The National Transitional Council "declared the liberation of Libya" and the official end of the war on 23 October 2011.[72]. [243] However, every day new footage made with cell phone cameras found its way to YouTube and the international media. Financial markets around the world had adverse reactions to the instability, with oil prices rising to a ​ .sr-only{border:0;clip:rect(0,0,0,0);height:1px;margin:-1px;overflow:hidden;padding:0;position:absolute;width:1px;white-space:nowrap} 1⁄2-year high. [335] By May 2014, conflicts between several factions in Libya had descended into a second civil war. Milanovic, Marko and Hadzi-Vidanovic, Vidan. Oil Minister Shukri Ghanem and Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa fled Libya, with the latter defecting to the UK. The regime of Muammar al-Qaddafi, however, violently resisted the uprising, leading to civil war and international military intervention. In general, the normative framework applicable to international conflicts is broader and more detailed than the sum of rules that apply in conflicts not of an international character. It took Predator drones about three weeks from the start of NATO’s war against Moammar Gadhafi to arrive in the skies over Libya. [373], The town of Tawergha, which supported Gaddafi prior to its capture by anti-Gaddafi fighters in August, has been emptied of its mostly black inhabitants in what appeared to be a "major reprisal against supporters of the Gaddafi regime", according to an 11 September report from The Sunday Telegraph, and commanders of the Misrata Brigade are refusing to allow the displaced townspeople to return. Libya Revolt of 2011, popular uprising in Libya inspired by the Arab Spring revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia. [376] In February, Italian Foreign Minister Frattini expressed his concerns that the amount of Libyan refugees trying to reach Italy might reach between 200,000 and 300,000 people. [316] Concerns were raised over the danger of Gaddafi mounting an insurgency against the new authorities. The resolution also referred the actions of the government to the International Criminal Court for investigation,[64] and an arrest warrant for Gaddafi was issued on 27 June. [33] The war led to the death of Gaddafi in October, and of thousands of other people. He thus criticized the ICC as "a fake court" that is controlled by the NATO nations. [133] Social media played a central role in organizing the opposition. Learn more abut the Libya Revolt of 2011. [citation needed] On 10 March, the president of the ICRC Jakob Kellenberger warned of the increase in the intensity of fighting and in the number of casualties arriving at hospitals in Ajdabiya and Misrata. "[209] A Libyan official reported to Libyan television that security forces arrested Tunisians and Egyptians that were "trained to sow chaos. [390], 100 countries recognized the anti-Gaddafi National Transitional Council as Libya's legitimate representative, with many of those countries explicitly describing it as the legal interim government of the country due to the perceived loss of legitimacy on the part of Gaddafi's government, though the National Transitional Council never obtained authority and security across all of Libya. [54] However, there was no independent verification of the Health Minister's statement and, one month later, the NTC reduced the estimated number of killed to 25,000. He also said that his father made recorded calls to General Abdul Fatah Younis, who later defected to the rebel forces, in order to request not to use force against protesters, to which he said Fatah Younis responded that protesters were attacking a military site and soldiers were acting in self-defense. [111][112] In contrast, a January 2011 report of the United Nations Human Rights Council, on which the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya sat prior to the uprising, released a month before protests began, praised certain aspects of the country's human rights record, including its treatment of women and improvements in other areas. La première guerre civile libyenne, ou révolution libyenne, est un conflit armé issu d'un mouvement de contestation populaire, assorti de revendications sociales et politiques, qui s'est déroulé entre le 15 février 2011 et le 23 octobre 2011 en Libye. Gaddafi acknowledged that the scheme, which promised up to 30,000 Libyan dinars ($23,000) annually to about a million of Libya's poorest, may "cause chaos before it brought about prosperity," but said "do not be afraid to experiment with a new form of government" and that "this plan is to offer a better future for Libya's children". A subsidiary of Bull developed a software called Eagle which enabled Gaddafi to monitor internet traffic and which was implemented in Libya in 2008 and with better performance in 2010. Journalists were only able to use officially approved translators. [188], In a 17 March 2011 interview, shortly before the military intervention, Muammar Gaddafi's son and heir apparent Saif al-Islam Gaddafi said that "armed militia" fighters in Benghazi were killing children and terrorizing the population. NATO and the rebels rejected the offer, and NATO soon resumed bombardment of Tripoli. [62], The Libyan government alleged that the armed rebellion was composed of "criminal gangs and mercenaries. From 1969 until 1975 standards of living, life expectancy and literacy grew rapidly. [332], Also on 3 January, Libya's government named a retired general from Misrata, Yousel al-Manquosh, as head of the country's armed forces. [220] Chadian sources repudiated allegations that mercenaries from Chad were involved in the fighting in Libya. Libya's Jamahiriya News Agency reported that the detained men were part of a "foreign network (and were) trained to damage Libya's stability, the safety of its citizens and national unity. Coffins at funerals have sometimes turned out to be empty. [233], In June 2011, Amnesty International said it found no evidence of foreign mercenaries being used, saying the black Africans said to be "mercenaries" were in fact "sub-Saharan migrants working in Libya," and described the use of mercenaries as a "myth" that "inflamed public opinion" and led to lynchings and executions of black Africans by rebel forces. In 2006, an initiative was adopted for providing people with low incomes investment portfolios amounting to $30,000 to be deposited with banks and companies. [279] On 3 March, it was reported that another member of the family, Prince Zouber al-Senussi, had fled Libya with his family and was seeking asylum in Totebo, Sweden. [91][92], Libya's economy is structured primarily around the nation's energy sector, which generates about 95% of export earnings, 80% of GDP, and 99% of government income. The demonstrations were protesting against the Government of Libya and its leader Muammar al-Gaddafi. They violently protested against the government. [313] By late afternoon the journalists trapped at the Rixos Hotel had been released while heavy fighting continued in the Abu Salim region close to Bab al-Azizia and elsewhere. [179][180][181] He said that if the rebels laid down their arms, they would not be harmed. The Libyan Civil War was a civil war in Libya during the year 2011. [360], The Sunday Telegraph reported on 11 September that almost the entire population of Tawergha, a town of about 10,000 people, had been forced to flee their homes by anti-Gaddafi fighters after their takeover of the settlement. The United Nations Security Council passed an initial resolution on 26 February, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and his inner circle and restricting their travel, and referred the matter to the International Criminal Court for investigation. "[252], The Guardian described journalism in Gaddafi's Libya as "North Korea with palm trees". [303][304] On 24 March, NATO agreed to take control of the no-fly zone, while command of targeting ground units remained with coalition forces. Libyan authorities also argued that no one in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya suffered from extreme poverty and hunger, and that the government guaranteed a minimum of food and essential needs to people with low incomes. [158] In Tobruk, volunteers turned a former headquarters of the government into a centre for helping protesters. [89][90] Major protests did not begin until 14 February 2011. [189] In multiple incidents, Gaddafi's forces were documented using ambulances in their attacks. [41] Clashes were also reported in Benghazi and Tripoli. As a train roars through a wall The government is ready to dialogue with them." [199], During the siege of Misrata in May 2011, Amnesty International reported "horrifying" tactics such as "indiscriminate attacks that have led to massive civilian casualties, including use of heavy artillery, rockets and cluster bombs in civilian areas and sniper fire against residents. Despite this, Libya's Human Development Index in 2010 was the highest in Africa and greater than that of Saudi Arabia. "[186], The Libyan government were reported to have employed snipers, artillery, helicopter gunships, warplanes, anti-aircraft weaponry, and warships against demonstrations and funeral processions. Some academics believe that as the rebels were now the legitimate and effective government of the state of Libya, the conflict was "deinternationalised" and thus non-international in nature again. [163] Former Jamahiriya Justice Minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil said in February that the new government would prepare for elections and they could be held in three months. The report suggested that Tawergha, which was dominated by black Libyans, may have been the subject of ethnic cleansing provoked by a combination of racism and bitterness on the part of Misratan fighters over the town's support for Gaddafi during the siege of Misrata. [73][74] A much greater issue has been the role of militias which fought in the civil war and their role in the new Libya. [237] Gaddafi shut down all Internet communications in Libya, and arrested Libyans who had given phone interviews to the media. Journalists who point out such blatant massaging of facts are harangued in the hotel corridors. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1970 was adopted on 26 February, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and ten members of his inner circle and restricting their travel. 4. Al-Saadi Gaddafi (POW) Libye : la guerre de succession 14 juin 2019, 18:36 Huit ans après l’intervention occidentale, la Libye ne s’acclimate pas à la démocratie et s’enfonce dans la guerre civile. [234], In October 2011 it was reported that the South African government was investigating the possibility that Gaddafi hired South African mercenaries to help him escape the besieged city of Sirte, where he was ultimately caught. The government used excessiv… [109], A national vote on Gaddafi's plan was held in 2009, where Libya's people's congresses, collectively the country's highest authority, voted to delay implementation. [75] These unresolved issues led directly to a second civil war in Libya. They violently protested against the government. Rebels took the city of Ghadames near the borders of Tunisia and Algeria on 29 August. [275] He also stated that he will support any form of government that Libya will choose after Gaddafi including a constitutional monarchy. Libya had welfare systems allowing access to free education, free healthcare, and financial assistance for housing, and the Great Manmade River was built to allow free access to fresh water across large parts of the country. Mutassim Gaddafi † ", "Mali fears as Tuaregs return from Libya", "Gadhafi Using Foreign Children As Mercenaries In Libya", "African Mercenaries in Libya Nervously Await Their Fate", "Libya: Gaddafi and His Mali-Chad Tuareg Mercenaries", "В Ливии на стороне правительства воюет немало зимбабвийцев", На стороне Каддафи воюют белорусские партизаны, Источник: освобожденный из плена в Ливии белорусский военный прибыл в Минск,, "Sudan: Govt Deploys Troops to Borders With Libya", "Algeria May have Violated UN Resolution By Providing Weapons to Libya, US State Dept",,,,,,,,,,,,,, "UPDATE 1-Anger, chaos but no revolt after Libya violence", "The rise of the 'Madkhalists': Inside Libya's struggle for religious supremacy", "Libya's Opposition Leadership Comes into Focus", "Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son, "Feature Report – Long summer of civil war in Libya", "Jordan begins Libya police training programme", "Gadhafi Asks Obama To Call Off NATO Military Campaign", "Libya: How the Opposing Sides Are Armed", "Prisoners in Libya languish without charge", "Libyan revolution casualties lower than expected, says new government", "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war", "Libyan Rebels Accused of Arbitrary Arrests, Torture", "Libyan Rebels Pledge Free and Fair Election", "A Visual Look Back at the Libyan Revolution", "Opinion: On the second anniversary of the 17th February 2011 Revolution – reflections and considerations", "Amnesty questions claim that Gaddafi ordered rape as weapon of war", "Security Council Calls for War Crimes Inquiry in Libya", "Security Council Authorizes 'All Necessary Measures' To Protect Civilians in Libya", "Gadhafi Blasts 'Crusader' Aggression After Strikes", "Libya accuses rebels of breaching truce", "Libyan rebels reject African Union road map – Africa", "Street fighting rages in Tripoli as Gaddafi loyalists fight rearguard action", "Gaddafi killed as Libya's revolt claims hometown", "Former Gaddafi stronghold revolts against Tripoli", "Qaddafi Is No Mubarak as Regime Overthrow May Trigger a 'Descent to Chaos, "Libyan minister claims Gaddafi is powerless and the ceasefire is 'solid, "Gaddafi Is Eccentric But the Firm Master of His Regime, Wikileaks Cables Say", "What Did Qaddafi's Green Book Really Say? This video is unavailable. Some top government officials opposed the plan, saying that it would "wreak havoc" in the economy by "fanning inflation and spurring capital flight". The big stories of 2011", "Libyan Opposition Declares 'Day of Rage' Against Gaddafi", "Anti-Government Protesters Killed in Libyan Clash", "Military Helicopters Reportedly Fire on Protesters in Libya", "POPULAR PROTEST IN NORTH AFRICA AND THE MIDDLE EAST (V): MAKING SENSE OF LIBYA. [280], By 23 February, Gaddafi was suffering from the resignations and defections of close allies,[281] from the loss of Benghazi,[282] the fall of Tobruk, Misrata, Bayda, Zawiya, Zuwara, Sabratha, Sorman,[281][283] and mounting international isolation and pressure. Estimates have been widely varied. [277] On 21 February, he made an appearance on Piers Morgan Tonight to discuss the uprising. [62] The protests escalated into a rebellion that spread across the country,[63] with the forces opposing Gaddafi establishing an interim governing body, the National Transitional Council. [377] By 1 March, officials from the UN High Commissioner for Refugees had confirmed allegations of discrimination against sub-Saharan Africans who were held in dangerous conditions in the no-man's-land between Tunisia and Libya. Because they were against them. [159], The National Transitional Council (Arabic: المجلس الوطني الانتقالي‎) was established on 27 February to consolidate efforts for change in the rule of Libya. Nightmare. [93] Libya's corruption perception index in 2010 was 2.2, ranking 146th out of 178 countries, worse than that of Egypt (ranked 98th) and Tunisia (ranked 59th). This extended even to his own sons, as he repeatedly changed affections to avoid the rise of a clear successor and rival. A provisional refugee camp set up at Ras Ajdir with a capacity for 10,000 was overflowing with an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 refugees. [351][352] Others maintain the opposite position, arguing that the available legal tests for "deinternationalisation" are unpersuasive and introduce vague and politicized criteria that cannot be satisfactorily considered in the heat of the battle. In the countryside of France, two groups of boys from the rural villages of Longeverne and Velran are in constant war against each other. A doctor in Benghazi said of the mercenaries that "they know one thing: to kill who is in front of them. [365], In August 2011, the UNHCR issued a strong call for the rights and lives of sub-Saharan Africans living in Libya to be protected due to reports that black Africans were being targeted[clarification needed] by the rebel forces as cities fell. [99] Likewise, supply lines were run by volunteers. [68], In August, rebel forces launched an offensive on the government-held coast of Libya, backed by a wide-reaching NATO bombing campaign, taking back territory lost months before and ultimately capturing the capital city of Tripoli,[69] while Gaddafi evaded capture and loyalists engaged in a rearguard campaign. De resolutie zorgde er ook … [114], The Revolutionary Committees occasionally kept tight control over internal dissent; reportedly, 10% to 20% of Libyans worked as informants for these committees, with surveillance taking place in the government, in factories, and in the education sector. Weapons allegedly continued to be delivered to Islamist groups also in September 2011, after the removal of Libya's government. Adopting resolution 1973 (2011) by a vote of 10 in favour to none against, with 5 abstentions (Brazil, China, ... Libya: United Nations Security Council proposed designations [155][157] Lyrics of a song 'Al-Soo'al' released by Ibn Thabit on YouTube on 27 January 2011, weeks before the riots began in Libya were indicative of the rebel sentiment. ", "Mali fears as Tuaregs return from Libya", "В Ливии на стороне правительства воюет немало зимбабвийцев", "Летало ли белорусское оружие в Ливию и Кот-д'Ивуар? [357] In early March, the fighting across Libya meant that more than a million people fleeing or inside the country needed humanitarian aid. An injured seven-year-old in a hospital was the victim of a car crash, according to a note passed on surreptitiously by a nurse. [155][156] On his website, Ibn Thabit said that he "has been attacking Gaddafi with his music since 2008" when he posted his first song on the internet, titled "Moammar – the coward". [58][59] It erupted with the Libyan Revolution,[60] also known as the 17 February Revolution. On February 15, 2011, anti-government protests began in Libya’s second-largest city, Benghazi, following popular uprisings in neighboring Tunisia and Egypt. [53], Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project, which compiles a database of all reported fatalities due to political violence on the African continent, listed 6,109 fatalities from 15 February to 23 October 2011, of which 1,319 prior to NATO intervention.

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