empereur avant trajan

Il fit carrière dans l'armée, fut nommé gouverneur de Germanie (en 96) avant d'être, l'année suivante, adopté par le vieil empereur Nerva et associé au pouvoir au titre de "César". J.-C. Il naquit en Bétique, à Italica, près de Séville.Fils d'un soldat de fortune, il fut élevé aux honneurs par Vespasien.Il se montra sous Domitien militaire aussi habile que brave. He placed permanent garrisons along the way to secure the territory. Les côtes sont nombreuses et favorisent l'échange avec l'extérieur. Histoire avant 1830 . [98] Other prominent Eastern senators included Gaius Julius Alexander Berenicianus, a descendant of Herod the Great, suffect consul in 116. 2879. Ses successeurs sont ses fils Arcadius chargé de l'Orient, futur « Empire byzantin », qui perdure jusqu'en 1453, et Honorius chargé de l'Occident, dénommé « Empire romain d'Occident », qui s'écroule au Ve siècle (476). Learn more about Trajan in this article. [73] Last but not least, inordinate spending on civic buildings was not only a means to achieve local superiority, but also a means for the local Greek elites to maintain a separate cultural identity – something expressed in the contemporary rise of the Second Sophistic; this "cultural patriotism" acted as a kind of substitute for the loss of political independence,[74] and as such was shunned by Roman authorities. [271], Aware that the Parthian campaign was an enormous setback, and that it revealed that the Roman Empire had no means for an ambitious program of conquests,[118] Hadrian's first act as emperor was to abandon – outwardly out of his own free will[272][273] – the distant and indefensible Mesopotamia and to restore Armenia, as well as Osrhoene, to the Parthian hegemony under Roman suzerainty. Fils adoptif et héritier d'Antonin le Pieux. NO. What is certain is that there was an increased Roman military presence in Judea at the time. Istorijski reljef. [243], Trajan sent two armies towards Northern Mesopotamia: the first, under Lusius Quietus, recovered Nisibis and Edessa from the rebels, probably having King Abgarus deposed and killed in the process,[243] with Quietus probably earning the right to receive the honors of a senator of praetorian rank (adlectus inter praetorios). [211] At the same time, a Roman column under the legate Lusius Quietus – an outstanding cavalry general[212] who had signaled himself during the Dacian Wars by commanding a unit from his native Mauretania[213] – crossed the Araxes river from Armenia into Media Atropatene and the land of the Mardians (present-day Ghilan). Octavian was adopted by his great-uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BCE, and then took the name Gaius Julius Caesar. Le titre d'empereur romain, résultant d'un concept assez moderne, résume la position tenue par les individus détenteurs du pouvoir dans l'Empire romain. Uskoro slika Cara postaje znamenje Carstva: svaki Rimljanin prepoznaje carev lik, pošto mu je video portret, bilo statuu bilo lik iskovan na novcu. Taille à la livre . [249] That done, Trajan retreated north in order to retain what he could of the new provinces of Armenia – where he had already accepted an armistice in exchange for surrendering part of the territory to Sanatruces' son Vologeses[250] – and Mesopotamia. [207], The campaign was carefully planned in advance: ten legions were concentrated in the Eastern theater; since 111, the correspondence of Pliny the Younger witnesses to the fact that provincial authorities in Bithynia had to organize supplies for passing troops, and local city councils and their individual members had to shoulder part of the increased expenses by supplying troops themselves. Peu de choses, nous pouvons supposer, si ce n’est qu’il fait partie de la longue lignée des empereurs romains persécuteurs des chrétiens. Sur cinq empereurs, seulement deux meurent de cause naturelle. [239] No attempt was made to expand into the Iranian Plateau itself, where the Roman army, with its relative weakness in cavalry, would have been at a disadvantage. IN. L'Empire romain d'Occident disparaît en 476 lorsque son dernier empereur, Romulus Augustule, est déposé par Odoacre. The Bodleian Libraries at the University of Oxford is the largest university library system in the United Kingdom. Marcus Ulpius Trajanus tel est le nom du dernier empereur Romain conquérant. [286], Some theologians such as Thomas Aquinas discussed Trajan as an example of a virtuous pagan. Marko Aurelije, konjička statua, bronza, 161-180 . Separate scenes of Domitian and Trajan making offerings to the gods appear on reliefs on the propylon of the Temple of Hathor at Dendera. [19], It has been remarked by authors such as Julian and Cassius Dio that Trajan was personally inclined towards homosexuality. La France a toujours été peuplée depuis que l'homme a colonisé l'Europe. It includes the principal University library – the Bodleian Library – which has been a legal deposit library for 400 years; as well as 30 libraries across Oxford including major research libraries and faculty, department and institute libraries. Remporte la vente aux enchères pour le poste d'empereur organisée par la, Prend le pouvoir avec le soutien des légions de, Proclamé empereur par les légions du Danube à la mort de, Gouverneur d'une province de l'Est, proclamé empereur par les légions du Danube contre, Proclamé empereur par l'armée après la mort de, Adopté en tant que « César » de l'Occident et héritier par, Adopté en tant que « César » de l'Orient et héritier par, Adopté en tant que « César » et héritier par, Usurpateur du trône de l'Occident de 383 au 384, puis coempereur légitime, S'autoproclame empereur avec le soutien de l'armée après la mort de. Trajan fut proclamé empereur à Cologne, dans les Gaules. Seemed to be saying: 'Lord, avenge my son, He had pursued a senatorial career without particular distinction and had not been officially adopted by Trajan (although he received from him decorations and other marks of distinction that made him hope for the succession). Les trois empereurs flaviens tentent de rétablir l'équilibre économique et militaire de l'Empire, affaibli par les derniers empereurs Julio-Claudiens et par la guerre civile de 69. Sa vie avant d’être empereur Marcus Ulpius Traianus, dit Trajan, est né le 18 septembre, sans doute en l’an 53, à Italica, près de Séville en Espagne. L'Empire, développé à partir de la République romaine après avoir fait de sa capitale Rome le pouvoir dominant en Europe au Ier siècle av. République romaine509 – 27 av. Il s'élève à environ 164 empereurs si on inclut les dix, Tétrarchies et dynastie des Constantiniens, Auguste évita l'écueil de sembler restaurer une monarchie honnie des Romains depuis la, Césautica, Claunégalo, Vivestido, Netrajhadan, Marcosepca, https://fr.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Liste_des_empereurs_romains&oldid=176374742, licence Creative Commons attribution, partage dans les mêmes conditions, comment citer les auteurs et mentionner la licence, Prend le pouvoir après le suicide de Néron, avec le soutien des légions, Prend le pouvoir avec le soutien des légions, Prend le pouvoir avec le soutien des légions de l'Est contre. 353, 354 Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. J.-C. par un mélange de vétérans et de soldats romains et alliés italiens blessés ou malades de l'armée de Scipion l'Africain. Car Trajan, 98-117 AD. [86], Trajan ingratiated himself with the Greek intellectual elite by recalling to Rome many (including Dio) who had been exiled by Domitian,[87] and by returning (in a process begun by Nerva) a great deal of private property that Domitian had confiscated. [161] Nevertheless, this reproductive aim was anachronistic, based as it was on a view of the Roman Empire as centered on Rome and Italy, with a purely Italian manpower base, both increasingly no longer the case. It's noteworthy, however, that Trajan, already in Syria early in 113, consistently refused to accept diplomatic approaches from the Parthians in order to settle the Armenian imbroglio peacefully.[179]. De plus, alors que Tibère vient de monter sur le trône, un premier usurpateur de l'Empire tente de prendre le pouvoir sans succès. Son gouvernement le fit justement préférer à tous les princes. [22] There are hints, however, in contemporary literary sources that Trajan's adoption was imposed on Nerva. Montag 09 November 2020 von 14:00 (Paris) Schauen Sie alle Elemente der Auktion. [99] Trajan created at least fourteen new senators from the Greek-speaking half of the Empire, an unprecedented recruitment number that opens to question the issue of the "traditionally Roman" character of his reign, as well as the "Hellenism" of his successor Hadrian. After having appointed Hadrian his successor, Trajan died while returning to Italy from the east. [290] Mommsen adopted a divided stance towards Trajan, at some point of his posthumously published lectures even speaking about his "vainglory" (Scheinglorie). [47] If in reality Trajan was an autocrat, his deferential behavior towards his peers qualified him to be viewed as a virtuous monarch. Who is dead, so that my heart is broken..' Use cases: Volumes are most useful when you need more storage space but don't need the additional processing power or memory that a larger Droplet would provide, like:. Enfin, à partir du mois de juin, Septime Sévère, fondateur de la dynastie des Sévères, et proclamé empereur par les légions de Pannonie, alors que Pescennius Niger l'est par les légions de Syrie et Clodius Albinus par les légions de Bretagne. EUR 7,90. [166], "Interesting and unique" as the scheme was, it remained small. La première a été écrite par le gouverneur romain de Bithynie, Pline, le jeune et adressée à l’empereur Trajan. Officiellement et au moment de sa mort en 44 av. David H. Higgins in his notes to Purgatorio X l. 75 says: "Pope Gregory the Great (d. 604) was held to have swayed the justice of God by prayer ('his great victory'), releasing Trajan's soul from Hell, who, resuscitated, was converted to Christianity. Il était issu de la riche famille espagnole d’origine italienne des Ulpii, qui émigra à Rome peu après la naissance de Trajan. [261] After reaching Selinus (modern Gazipaşa) in Cilicia, which was afterwards called Trajanopolis, he suddenly died from edema on August 8. À 20 ans, il commande une armée. [65] The main goal was to curb the overenthusiastic spending on public works that served to channel ancient rivalries between neighboring cities. Trajan's putative lovers included Hadrian, pages of the imperial household, the actor Pylades, a dancer called Apolaustus, and senator Lucius Licinius Sura. Au vieux et sage Nerva (96-98) succèdent Trajan (98-117), Hadrien (117-138), Antonin le Pieux (138-161), Marc Aurèle (161-180) et Commode (180-192). Trajan gouvernera toujours en étroite collaboration avec le Sénat, ce qui lui vaudra l’appui de ce dernier. [160], Although the system is well documented in literary sources and contemporary epigraphy, its precise aims are controversial and have generated considerable dispute among modern scholars, especially about its actual aims and scope as a piece of welfare policy. [93], Nevertheless, while the office of corrector was intended as a tool to curb any hint of independent political activity among local notables in the Greek cities,[94] the correctores themselves were all men of the highest social standing entrusted with an exceptional commission. Bennett, Trajan, 196; Christol & Nony, Rome,171. Pliny the Younger, for example, celebrates Trajan in his panegyric as a wise and just emperor and a moral man. [141] The fact that these former Danubian outposts had ceased to be frontier bases and were now in the deep rear acted as an inducement to their urbanization and development. Both are adulatory perorations, typical of the High Imperial period, that describe an idealized monarch and an equally idealized view of Trajan's rule, and concern themselves more with ideology than with actual fact. Augustus was intelligent, decisive, and a shrewd politician, but he was not perhaps as charismatic as Julius Caesar and was influenced on occasion by Livia (sometimes for the worse). This will increase the security and usability of your server and will give you a solid foundation for subseq [220] Since Charax was a de facto independent kingdom whose connections to Palmyra were described above, Trajan's bid for the Persian Gulf may have coincided with Palmyrene interests in the region. This can be explained in part by the prominence of his father's career, as his father had been instrumental to the ascent of the ruling Flavian dynasty, held consular rank himself and had just been made a patrician. [156], In 107 Trajan devalued the Roman currency. He decreased the silver purity of the denarius from 93.5% to 89% – the actual silver weight dropping from 3.04 grams to 2.88 grams. The Roman province eventually took the form of an "excrescence" North of the Danube, with ill-defined limits, stretching from the Danube northwards to the Carpathians,[123] and was intended perhaps as a basis for further expansion in Eastern Europe – which the Romans conceived to be much more "flattened", and closer to the ocean, than it actually was. It is possible, but cannot be substantiated, that Trajan's ancestors married local women and lost their citizenship at some point, but they certainly recovered their status when the city became a municipium with Latin citizenship in the mid-1st century BC. Justice requires it and pity holds me back.' [128] Trajan also reformed the infrastructure of the Iron Gates region of the Danube. In the West, that meant local senatorial families like his own. IN John Rich, Graham Shipley, eds. Trajan Dèce, un empereur face aux barbares À l’évocation du nom de Trajan Dèce, que vous vient-il à l’esprit ? [91] For the same reason, judging from Pliny's letters it can also be assumed that Trajan and his aides were as much bored as they were alarmed by the claims of Dio and other Greek notables to political influence based on what they saw as their "special connection" to their Roman overlords. Pergamum inscription (Smallwood NH 214), reproduced in Brian Campbell. Empire romain27 av. [60] This was something the Romans were not disposed to do as from their perspective the Greek notables were shunning their responsibilities in regard to the management of Imperial affairs – primarily in failing to keep the common people under control, thus creating the need for the Roman governor to intervene. J.-C. (début du règne d'Auguste) à 476 ap. Royauté romaine753 – 509 av. [28] Sura is also described as telling Hadrian in 108 about his selection as imperial heir. 1–35. [257] It has been theorized that Quietus and his colleagues were executed on Hadrian's direct orders, for fear of their popular standing with the army and their close connections to Trajan. Mais il ne rentrera à Rome que quelques mois après son avènement. ", In the 18th-century King Charles III of Spain commissioned Anton Raphael Mengs to paint The Triumph of Trajan on the ceiling of the banquet hall of the Royal Palace of Madrid – considered among the best works of this artist. Avant lui, Gordien III parvint à maîtriser la situation en versant des tributs annuels mais Phi-lippe Ier refusa en 248 de poursuivre ces paiements. Various authors have discussed the existence of the province and its location: André Maricq (La province d'Assyrie créée par Trajan. According to Pliny, the best way to achieve this was to lower the minimum age for holding a seat on the council, making it possible for more sons of the established oligarchical families to join and thus contribute to civic spending; this was seen as preferable to enrolling non-noble wealthy upstarts. [300], "Traian" redirects here. From there, after his father's replacement, he seems to have been transferred to an unspecified Rhine province, and Pliny implies that he engaged in active combat duty during both commissions. F. A. Lepper, "Trajan's Parthian War" (1948). Vérifiez les traductions 'trajan' en Vietnamien. Toutefois, vers l'an 500, à la suite de sa victoire face aux Ostrogoths, le roi des Francs Clovis Ier reçut le titre de consul des Romains de la part de l'empereur d'Orient. Volumes are region-specific resources. [25] As a token of his influence, Sura would later become consul for the third time in 107. It seems that the mortgage scheme was simply a way of making local notables participate, albeit in a lesser role, in imperial benevolence. Si on considère la nature de la mort de ces 164 empereurs (soit naturelle, soit violente) on constate que la proportion de morts naturelles est de 44% pour les empereurs « légitimes », 30 % pour les usurpateurs légitimés et seulement 7% pour les usurpateurs non légitimés. [251] Another rebellion flared up among the Jewish communities of Northern Mesopotamia, probably part of a general reaction against Roman occupation. Son père suivit toutes les étapes de la politique romaine jusqu'au sénat. Avec lui, l'empire romain entre pour de bon dans son Âge d'Or, le siècle des Antonins. [163] The fact that the scheme was restricted to Italy suggests that it might have been conceived as a form of political privilege accorded to the original heartland of the empire. Trajan. [84] A similar situation existed in Claudiopolis, where a public bath was built with the proceeds from the entrance fees paid by "supernumerary" members of the Council, enrolled with Trajan's permission. Dion Cassius pense que l’empereur Hadrien (76-138), successeur de Trajan, en est à l’origine et ce afin de protéger les frontières de l’empire des invasions des tribus voisines des Roxolans et des Lazyges, peuples sarmates d’origine scythe. [298] It is in modern French historiography that Trajan's reputation becomes most markedly deflated: Paul Petit writes about Trajan's portraits as a "lowbrow boor with a taste for booze and boys". … Their military function fulfilled, most of them fell into disrepair or were wrecked on purpose after Trajan's reign: cf. Cherchez des exemples de traductions trajan dans des phrases, écoutez à la prononciation et apprenez la grammaire. Il remet aussi de l'ordre dans les finances de l’État, mate deux révoltes et commence la construction du Colisée (70). Il est probable que le premier Ulpius installé en Bétique provienne de cette armée, bien qu'il soit aussi possible qu'il soit arrivé plus tar… Also, Trajan withdrew from circulation silver denarii minted before the previous devaluation achieved by Nero, something that allows for thinking that Trajan's devaluation had to do with political ends, such as allowing for increased civil and military spending. Montag 30 November 2020 von 14:00 (Paris) Schauen Sie alle Elemente der Auktion. [62] Nevertheless, as a Greek local magnate with a taste for costly building projects and pretensions of being an important political agent for Rome,[63] Dio of Prusa was actually a target for one of Trajan's authoritarian innovations: the appointing of imperial correctores to audit the civic finances[64] of the technically free Greek cities. By trying to develop an anti-Roman bloc, Decebalus eventually left Trajan without the alternative of treating Dacia as a protectorate, rather than an outright conquest. [134], Trajan built a new city, Colonia Ulpia Traiana Augusta Dacica Sarmizegetusa, on another site (north of the hill citadel holding the previous Dacian capital),[135] although bearing the same full name, Sarmizegetusa. L'empire Romain, après August, avait été plus défendu qu' agrandi; il l'élargie de l'an en large. The fortress city of Hatra, on the Tigris in his rear, continued to hold out against repeated Roman assaults. It is usually assumed that the program was intended to bolster citizen numbers in Italy, following the provisions of Augustus' moral legislation (Lex Julia) favoring procreation on moral grounds – something openly acknowledged by Pliny. [50], Eventually, Trajan's popularity among his peers was such that the Roman Senate bestowed upon him the honorific of optimus, meaning "the best",[51][52] which appears on coins from 105 on. [231] Another hypothesis is that the rulers of Charax had expansionist designs on Parthian Babylon, giving them a rationale for alliance with Trajan. Il prend soin de ne pas utiliser de titre spécifique pour qualifier ses pouvoirs, qu'il ne prend jamais de lui-même, mais se les fait conférer par le Sénat. [263][264] He received no post after his 108 consulate,[265] and no further honours other than being made Archon eponymos for Athens in 111/112. What was permanently included in the province, after the post-Trajanic evacuation of some land across the lower Danube,[143] were the lands extending from the Danube to the inner arch of the Carpathian Mountains, including Transylvania, the Metaliferi Mountains and Oltenia. [61], An excellent example of this Greek alienation was the personal role played by Dio of Prusa in his relationship with Trajan. L'Empire romain d'Orient, que les historiens nomment aussi « Empire byzantin » à partir du Haut Moyen Âge, disparaît en 1453 lors de la prise de Constantinople par les Ottomans. You can only move them between Droplets in the same datacenter. Trajan a donc été adopté par l'Empereur Nerva, cet Empereur … Pliny implied as much when he wrote that, although an emperor could not be coerced into doing something, if this were the way in which Trajan was raised to power, then it was worth it. The Greeks, though, had their own memories of independence – and a commonly acknowledged sense of cultural superiority – and, instead of seeing themselves as Roman, disdained Roman rule. Ph.D Thesis, University of Missouri, 2015, page 70. Frank Vermeulen, Kathy Sas, Wouter Dhaeze, eds. Il meurt avant que celle-ci ait eu le temps de le renverser. Trajan était, avant tout, comme je l'ai dit, un grand philanthrope et mécène de la jeunesse romaine. Trajan did likewise, but since "willingness is a slippery commodity", Finley suspects that, in order to ensure Italian landowners' acceptance of the burden of borrowing from the alimenta fund, some "moral" pressure was exerted. Jules César est parfois à tort considéré comme le premier empereur de la dynastie, par son appartenance à la gens des Iulii, alors qu'il est nommé dictateur à vie de la République romaine et imperator à titre militaire. Auguste (Augustus) est souvent reconnu comme étant le premier empereur. [46], In the formula developed by Pliny, however, Trajan was a "good" emperor in that, by himself, he approved or blamed the same things that the Senate would have approved or blamed. Available at. Trajan (empereur romain, 0053-0117) : œuvres (1 716 ressources dans data.bnf.fr) Œuvres numismatiques (1 707) In the Renaissance, Machiavelli, speaking on the advantages of adoptive succession over heredity, mentioned the five successive good emperors "from Nerva to Marcus"[3] – a trope out of which the 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon popularized the notion of the Five Good Emperors, of whom Trajan was the second. L'enfance et l'adolescence de Trajan sont obscures, mais certainement reçu une éducation appropriée à son grade, apprentissage de la grammaire, la rhétorique et grec Il se marie avant de devenir empereur Plotine, fille de Lucio Pompeio et Plotia, une puissante famille de natif probablement 'Hispanie ou Narbonne Gaule. Trajan was born in Italica, close to modern Seville in present-day Spain, an Italic settlement in the Roman province of Hispania Baetica. [162] Given its limited scope, the plan was, nevertheless, very successful in that it lasted for a century and a half: the last known official in charge of it is attested during the reign of Aurelian. Sévère arrive à Rome et décapite Julianus, puis s'allie avec Albinus contre Niger qu'il défait à Issos en 194. Après sa mort le 15 mars 44 av. [192] Commercial activity in second century Mesopotamia seems to have been a general phenomenon, shared by many peoples within and without the Roman Empire, with no sign of a concerted Imperial policy towards it. Ses alliés rejoignant les uns après les autres le camp de Vespasien, Vitellius est finalement battu au cours de la seconde bataille de Bedriacum. Officially declared by the Senate optimus princeps ("best ruler"), Trajan is remembered as a successful soldier-emperor who presided over the second-greatest military expansion in Roman history after Augustus, leading the empire to attain its maximum territorial extent by the time of his death. Trajan est l’un des descendants d’un groupe de colons italiens installés à Italica, dans la province d’Hispanie, la future Bétique, située au sud de la péninsule Ibérique . [26][27] These baths were later expanded by the third century emperor Decius as a means of stressing his link to Trajan. [90] When the city of Apamea complained of an audit of its accounts by Pliny, alleging its "free" status as a Roman colony, Trajan replied by writing that it was by his own wish that such inspections had been ordered. Finally, in 105, Decebalus undertook an invasion of Roman-occupied territory north of the Danube. J.-C., 116 (71%) sont morts de mort violente. "Trajano fundador. Il consiste en une « phrase facile » à retenir dont chaque syllabe est le début du nom d'un empereur : « Césautica, Claunégalo, Vivestido. Il mourut dans sa villa de Lorium, à douze milles de Rome, à l’âge de soixante-treize ans, et la vingt-troisième année de son règne. [209], Trajan marched first on Armenia, deposed the Parthian-appointed king, Parthamasiris (who was afterwards murdered while kept in the custody of Roman troops in an unclear incident, later described by Fronto as a breach of Roman good faith[210]), and annexed it to the Roman Empire as a province, receiving in passing the acknowledgement of Roman hegemony by various tribes in the Caucasus and on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea – a process that kept him busy until the end of 114. [35] There remained the issue of the strained relations between the emperor and the Senate, especially after the supposed bloodiness that had marked Domitian's reign and his dealings with the Curia. Trajan est né sous le nom de Marcus Ulpius Traianus le 18 septembre en 53 après J-C à Italica près de Séville ( Espagne ). Kiểm tra các bản dịch 'trajan' sang Tiếng Việt. [174], In short, the scheme was so limited in scope that it could not have fulfilled a coherent economic or demographic purpose – it was directed, not towards the poor, but to the community (in this case, the Italian cities) as a whole. [39] Therefore, he could point to the allegedly republican character of his rule. In 76–77, Trajan's father was Governor of Syria (Legatus pro praetore Syriae), where Trajan himself remained as Tribunus legionis. [150] The victory was commemorated by the construction both of the 102 cenotaph generally known as the Tropaeum Traiani in Moesia, as well of the much later (113) Trajan's Column in Rome, the latter depicting in stone carved bas-reliefs the Dacian Wars' most important moments. [123] Including auxiliaries, the number of Roman troops engaged on both campaigns was between 150,000 and 175,000, while Decebalus could dispose of up to 200,000. J.-C., et c'est lui qui met en application les réformes que César avait seulement promulguées, donnant ainsi à l'Empire des traits économiques et sociaux très différents de ceux de la République. Panégyriques > Ouvrages avant 1800. A vicus was also created around the Tropaeum Traianum. [112] Trajan's troops were mauled in the encounter, and he put off further campaigning for the year in order to regroup and reinforce his army. [149] Therefore, use of slave labor in the province itself seems to have been relatively undeveloped, and epigraphic evidence points to work in the gold mines being conducted by means of labor contracts (locatio conductio rei) and seasonal wage-earning.

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