guerre libye 2011

There were no combat casualties amongst the coalition forces, although one RAF airman was killed in an accident in Italy. [376] In February, Italian Foreign Minister Frattini expressed his concerns that the amount of Libyan refugees trying to reach Italy might reach between 200,000 and 300,000 people. The report suggested that Tawergha, which was dominated by black Libyans, may have been the subject of ethnic cleansing provoked by a combination of racism and bitterness on the part of Misratan fighters over the town's support for Gaddafi during the siege of Misrata. In October the fighting diminished, and the rebels declared victory. According to Moreno-Ocampo, "shooting at protesters was systematic". Despite previous reports suggesting that Muammar Gaddafi may be inside, no members of the Gaddafi family were found. Al-quaeda started bombing. ", "Arab Spring: timeline of the African and Middle East rebellions", "Libya Protests Build, Showing Revolts' Limits", "Twitter and Other Services Create Cracks in Gadhafi's Media Fortress", "Opening Closed Regimes: What Was the Role of Social Media During the Arab Spring? Despite this, Libya's Human Development Index in 2010 was the highest in Africa and greater than that of Saudi Arabia. NATO/Libya : Allies Stress Their Unity of Objective, but Fail to Resolve all Their Differences In: EUROPE DIPLOMACY & DEFENCE, no. [290], It is generally accepted that the military intervention by a multi-state coalition acting under the Security Council mandate since 19 March 2011 occasioned an international armed conflict between Libya and the intervening states. [183] The exact same day, the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting reported that the International Criminal Court estimated 10,000 had been killed. [154], Some groups, such as a rock band from Benghazi called the "Guys Underground", used metaphors to cloak the censure of the authorities. ", "Mali fears as Tuaregs return from Libya", "В Ливии на стороне правительства воюет немало зимбабвийцев", "Летало ли белорусское оружие в Ливию и Кот-д'Ивуар? [238][239] International journalists were banned by the Libyan authorities from reporting from Libya except by invitation of the Gaddafi government. Foreign aid workers were also claiming to be prohibited from officially talking about the allegations. He also blamed alcohol. [195], On 19 February, several days after the conflict began, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi announced the creation of a commission of inquiry into the violence, chaired by a Libyan judge, as reported on state television. These acts can be characterized as crimes against humanity, as defined in Article 7 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. [215] His brother Ismail al-Salabi, leader of the Islamist "February 17 Katiba" rebel faction, was believed to be financially backed from Qatar. By contrast, regular military units were poorly armed and trained, and were armed with largely outdated military equipment. [93] Libya's corruption perception index in 2010 was 2.2, ranking 146th out of 178 countries, worse than that of Egypt (ranked 98th) and Tunisia (ranked 59th). [381] Islamic leaders and clerics in Libya, notably the Network of Free Ulema – Libya urged all Muslims to rebel against Gaddafi. When their young son is diagnosed with a brain tumor, young parents Roméo and Juliette unite in the fight for his survival. "[222], In Mali, members of the Tuareg tribe confirmed that a large number of men, about 5,000, from the tribe went to Libya in late February. Rap, hip hop and traditional music, alongside other genres, played a big role in encouraging dissent against Gaddafi's government. [154], Many opposition participants called for a return to the 1952 constitution and a transition to multi-party democracy. [316] Concerns were raised over the danger of Gaddafi mounting an insurgency against the new authorities. But some also fought as pro-Gaddafi mercenaries, and many migrant workers [-] fled ahead of the rebels, fearing they would be mistaken for mercenaries. By 3 March, the situation was described as a logistical nightmare, with the World Health Organization warning of the risk of epidemics. By ANDREW GLASS. The allegations surfaced in an Al Jazeera report the previous month from Libya-based doctors, who claimed to have found Viagra in the pockets of government soldiers. We Are Free, "Qaddafi's Grip Falters as His Forces Take On Protesters", "Libyan rebels let Russian journalists go — RT News", "Rebel Leaders in Libya's Misrata Curb Press Freedoms as Casualties Mount", "BBC Crew Beaten and Given Mock Executions", "Killing of Al Jazeera Journalist Condemned", Freed journalists await word on missing driver, reflect on Libyan captivity, "Mohammad Nabbous, face of citizen journalism in Libya, is killed", "Ultranationalist Serbs Organize Pro-Qaddafi Campaign", "Reporting from Libya – Close your window", "No freedom for foreign press at Tripoli's Rixos hotel", "Muammar Gaddafi Using Civilians To Protect Key Sites", "Libyan Rebels Battle Qaddafi's Forces for Control of Cities", "Text of Leader's Speech to Misrata Tribes in Tripoli and its Suburbs 4th Addendum", "Libya's Prosecutor General Says Joins Opposition", "Libya's Ambassadors to India, Arab League Resign in Protest Against Government", "Libyan Ambassador to Belgium, Head of Mission to EU Resigns", "Libyan Ambassador Denounces Gadhafi At U.N", "Libyan embassy cuts ties with Gaddafi, as Australia considers evacuations", "Libyan Ambassadors in France Back Revolt", "Libyan Ambassador to Portugal Quits in Protest", "Ambassaden hissar Libyens frihetsflagga", "Libya's US Ambassador Resigns from 'Dictatorship, In a New Libya, Ex-Loyalists Race to Shed Ties to Qaddafi, "Two Libyan Fighter Pilots Defect, Fly to Malta", "Qaddafi's Hold on Libya Weakens in Protest Wave", "Libya's Crown Prince Says Protesters Will Defy 'Brutal Forces, "Libya's 'Exiled Prince' Urges World Action", "Libyan Crown Prince Urges No-Fly Zone, Air Strikes", "Libyan Crown Prince Speaks to EU Parliament", "Libia, principe Idris: "Gheddafi assecondi popolo o il Paese finirà in fiamme, "Who Is Moammer Gadhafi? They're killing people in cold blood". [140] Foreign workers and disgruntled minorities protested in the main square of Zawiya, Libya against the local administration. Then, on March 6, launched a counter-offensive against Rebels. [318] The NTC captured the whole of Sirte on 20 October 2011, and reported that Gaddafi himself had been killed in the city. [360] [119] During the early 1980s, the Revolutionary Committees had considerable power and became a growing source of tension within the Jamihiriya,[120] to the extent that Gaddafi sometimes criticized their effectiveness and excessive repression,[119][120] until the power of the Revolutionary Committees was eventually restricted in the late 1980s. ", "На стороне Каддафи воюют белорусские партизаны", "Белорусские военные позволяют армии Каддафи противостоять НАТО", "Libya's Opposition Leadership Comes into Focus", "Nato strike 'kills Gaddafi's youngest son, "Feature Report – Long summer of civil war in Libya", "Jordan begins Libya police training programme", "Gadhafi Asks Obama To Call Off NATO Military Campaign", "Libya: How the Opposing Sides Are Armed", "Prisoners in Libya languish without charge", "Libyan estimate: At least 30,000 died in the war", "Libyan Rebels Accused of Arbitrary Arrests, Torture", "There Was No Libyan Peaceful Protest,     :      Information Clearing House: ICH", "UN silent despite no basis for NATO's illegal war on Libya - Scoop News", "Libyan rebel commander admits his fighters have al-Qaeda links",, Articles with dead external links from November 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2018, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, 5,904–6,626 opposition fighters and supporters killed (other estimates: see, 3,309–4,227 soldiers killed (other estimates: see. Watch Queue Queue In addition, the report stated that there were information platforms such as newspapers and TV channels for people to express their opinions through. The orderly said that ambulances brought in three or four corpses at a time, and that after the ice lockers were filled to capacity, bodies were placed on stretchers or the floor, and that "it was in the same at the other hospitals". On 24 February, as-Senussi gave an interview to Al Jazeera where he called upon the international community to help remove Gaddafi from power and stop the ongoing "massacre". Malian government officials told BBC that it is hard to stop the flow of fighters from Mali to Libya. Although Libya is largely desert and poor in natural resources, oil has been an important commodity in … [382] The Tuareg and Magarha tribes announced their support of the protesters. [159], The National Transitional Council (Arabic: المجلس الوطني الانتقالي‎) was established on 27 February to consolidate efforts for change in the rule of Libya. "[372], It was also reported that some African women had said rebels were raping them in refugee camps, with additional reports of forced labour. If you do that, it means (that the) one-third of the population of Libya, which is black, is also mercenaries. As a train roars through a wall The Arabian Gulf Oil Company, the second-largest state-owned oil company in Libya, announced plans to use oil funds to support anti-Gaddafi forces. Gaddafi vowed to hunt them down and "clean Libya house by house" until all rebels are gone. [193], In the eastern city of Bayda, anti-government forces hanged two policemen who were involved in trying to disperse demonstrations. [186], Amnesty International also reported that security forces targeted paramedics helping injured protesters. Military Intervention in Libya", "UNHCR concerned as sub-Saharan Africans targeted in Libya", "Libyan Rebels Wary Of Sub-Saharan Africans", "Libya: Fears for detainees held by anti-Gaddafi forces", "Blacks in Libya Face Danger From Rebels", "Elders hold talks over Gaddafi stronghold", "African women say rebels raped them in Libyan camp", "Gaddafi's ghost town after the loyalists retreat", "Strife in Libya Could Presage Long Civil War", "At a Tense Border Crossing, a Systematic Effort To Keep Black Africans Out", "Libyan Refugee Crisis Called a 'Logistical Nightmare'", "Libya: More Aid To Reach Misrata and Other Areas", "Libya's Arabian Gulf Oil Co Hopes To Fund Rebels Via Crude Sales-FT", "Update 1-Libyan Islamic Leaders Urge Muslims To Rebel", "Libya Crisis: What Role Do Tribal Loyalties Play? Available only in … [176], In the days leading up to the conflict, Gaddafi called for a rally against the government that was to be held on 17 February. Nobel peace prize-winner and US President Obama says unleashing cruise missiles from submarines is … [86] A broadly secular society was imposed. [330], Fighting broke out on 3 January 2012, at a building used as intelligence headquarters by the Gaddafi government. The Libyan Civil War was a civil war in Libya during the year 2011. Much of the state's income came from its oil production, which soared in the 1970s. [259][260][261] The ambassadors to Australia,[262] Bangladesh, Belgium,[260] France,[263] India,[259] Indonesia,[152] Malaysia, Nigeria, Portugal,[264] Sweden,[265] and the US[266] also renounced the Gaddafi government or formally resigned. [243] Several residents reported that cellphone service was down, and even landline phone service was sporadic. Coffins at funerals have sometimes turned out to be empty. [115] With the establishment of the Jamahiriya ("state of the masses") system in 1977, he established the Revolutionary Committees as conduits for raising political consciousness, with the aim of direct political participation by all Libyans rather than a traditional party-based representative system. There were also reports of harassment and theft by rebels; however, the rebel army indicated it would leave unarmed civilians "to their own devices", and had allowed families in the city access to supplies and medical assistance. In addition, some loyalist forces crossed into Niger, though the escape attempts exploded into violence when detected by Nigerien troops. On February 16, 2011 Libyan protesters clashed with police in an anti-government demonstration inspired by the uprisings that brought down the rulers of Libya's neighbors, Egypt and Tunisia. At the same time, the opposition said that 6,500 people had died. There was also the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group[169] and the Obaida Ibn Jarrah Brigade which has been held responsible for the assassination of top rebel commander General Abdul Fatah Younis. Among those, escaping the violence, were native Libyans as well as foreign nationals including Egyptians, Tunisians and Turks. A subsidiary of Bull developed a software called Eagle which enabled Gaddafi to monitor internet traffic and which was implemented in Libya in 2008 and with better performance in 2010. [311] Later the same day, rebels blasted open the Bab al-Azizia compound in Tripoli through its north gates and stormed inside. [199], During the siege of Misrata in May 2011, Amnesty International reported "horrifying" tactics such as "indiscriminate attacks that have led to massive civilian casualties, including use of heavy artillery, rockets and cluster bombs in civilian areas and sniper fire against residents. They took more than 100 children whose whereabouts we do not know — maybe to Europe, to be evangelised. According to Western diplomats, this move appeared to be aimed at putting pressure on the government to speed up reforms. [292] Seventeen days later, a multi-state coalition began a military intervention in Libya to implement United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973, which was taken in response to events then occurring during the conflict. The First Libyan Civil War was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and foreign supported groups seeking to oust his government. 200,000 volunteers by war's end(NTC estimate)[24]. [105] In March 2008, Gaddafi proposed plans to dissolve the country's existing administrative structure and disburse oil revenue directly to the people. Chair: Professor Mats Berdal, Director, Conflict, Security and Development Research Group (CSDRG) & Programme Director, MA in Conflict, Security and Development. The Chadian Ministry of Foreign Affairs in a statement said that "Chadians are not sent or recruited in Chad to serve as mercenaries in Libya," and that allegations about Chadian mercenaries were "likely to cause serious physical and material harm to Chadians residing in Libya. [197] The International Federation for Human Rights concluded on 24 February that Gaddafi was implementing a scorched earth strategy. One, the Khamis Brigade, was led by his son Khamis. Two Libyan Air Force colonels each flew their Mirage F1 fighter jets to Malta and requested asylum, after being ordered to carry out airstrikes against civilian protesters in Benghazi. Journalists and human rights researchers made daily phone calls to hundreds of civilians in government held territory. [312], Early the following day, 24 August, Gaddafi broadcast an address from a Tripoli local radio station in which he said the withdrawal from Bab al-Azizia had been a "tactical" move. On 24 February, Libya's ambassador to Malta said that Gaddafi's government believed the number of dead to be about 300, including civilians, police officers, and soldiers. [223][224] Gaddafi has used Malian Tuaregs in his political projects before, sending them to fight in places like Chad, Sudan and Lebanon and recently they have fought against the Niger government, a war which Gaddafi has reportedly sponsored. The Battle of Misrata was the fiercest battle in the civil war. [190][191] Injured demonstrators were sometimes denied access to hospitals and ambulance transport. "[210] According to the Libyan Government authorities, mercenaries from Turkey, Egypt, and Tunisia entered Libya to fight on the side of the rebels. On 19 March 2011, exactly eight years later to the day, it was the French president’s turn to rain down bombs over Libya, once again claiming it was to bring democracy. [286][287] But in early March, Gaddafi's forces pushed the rebels back and eventually reached Benghazi[288][289] and Misrata. [66][67] Throughout the conflict, rebels rejected government offers of a ceasefire and efforts by the African Union to end the fighting because the plans set forth did not include the removal of Gaddafi. [33] The war led to the death of Gaddafi in October, and of thousands of other people. Some army personnel also joined the protesters; they then seized the local radio station. Oil Minister Shukri Ghanem and Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa fled Libya, with the latter defecting to the UK. [165] Some of the rebels opposed tribalism and wore vests bearing slogans such as "No to tribalism, no to factionalism". [81], Both Gaddafi and the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, however, officially denied that he held any power, but said that he was merely a symbolic figurehead. He later stated that international community needs "less talk and more action" to stop the violence. [61] The war was preceded by protests in Zawiya on 8 August 2009 and finally ignited by protests in Benghazi beginning on Tuesday, 15 February 2011, which led to clashes with security forces that fired on the crowd. Mustafa Jalil[43](Commander-in-Chief) Omar El-Hariri[44] Jalal al-Digheily Khalifa Haftar Abdelhakim Belhaj Abdul Fatah Younis † Suleiman Mahmoud[45] Hamad bin Ali Al Attiyah, 17,000 defected soldiers and volunteers[48][failed verification] "[211], Military advisors from Qatar participated on the side of the rebels,[212] and were sometimes labelled as "mercenaries" by the media. He cited reports from the Libyan Foreign Ministry that up to 2,500 al-Qaeda foreign operatives have been working in eastern Libya and were mostly responsible for "stirring up trouble." [378] By 3 March, an estimated 200,000 refugees had fled Libya to either Tunisia or Egypt. [94] One paper speculated that such a situation created a broader contrast between good education, high demand for democracy, and the government's practices (perceived corruption, political system, supply of democracy). [99] Some Libyans said that they had found abandoned torture chambers and devices that had been used in the past. Our revenge will catch you An Al-Jazeera journalist Ali Hassan al-Jaber was murdered, and was apparently deliberately targeted. [204][309], Heads of the rebellion reported on 21 August that Gaddafi's son, Saif al-Islam, was under arrest and that they had encircled the leader's compound, suggesting that the war had reached its endgame with an imminent rebel victory. [335] By May 2014, conflicts between several factions in Libya had descended into a second civil war. "[216], Over ten ammunition shipments sponsored by Qatar were allegedly delivered to anti-Gaddhafi forces via Sudan. See, e.g., Kolb, Robert and Hyde, Richard. The production of oil had almost completely stopped and the government had lost control of large areas of the country to the militias, while violence increased throughout the country. [323][324] Chinese Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Jiang Yu has confirmed arms sales talks with Gaddafi forces, but no arms were delivered. A number of senior military officials defected to the opposition, including General Abdul Fatah Younis, General al-Barani Ashkal,[267] Major General Suleiman Mahmoud, Brigadier General Musa'ed Ghaidan Al Mansouri, Brigadier General Hassan Ibrahim Al Qarawi and Brigadier General Dawood Issa Al Qafsi. [207][208], In a questionnaire 259 refugee women reported that they had been raped by Gaddafi's soldiers, however the accounts of these women could not be independently verified as the psychologist who conducted the questionnaire said that "she had lost contact with them". [83][84][85], By the end of Gaddafi's 42-year rule, Libya's population had a per capita income of $14,000, though a third was estimated to still live below the national poverty line. [356] On 25 February, the International Committee of the Red Cross launched an emergency appeal for US$6,400,000 to meet the emergency needs of people affected by the violent unrest in Libya. 2011 War On Libya Belligerents.svg 863 × 443; 1.22 MB BM-21 Bengasi 0589 b1.JPG 800 × 517; 161 KB Coalition action against Libya de.png 2,026 × 2,258; 384 KB [218], Qatar also provided training to fighters based both in eastern Libya and in the Nafusa Mountains, in the Tripoli area. He stated, "You know, the armoured militia yesterday, they killed four young boys in Benghazi. Libya Revolt of 2011, popular uprising in Libya inspired by the Arab Spring revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia. Omar El-Hariri[19] [130] The plans to protest were inspired by the Tunisian and Egyptian revolution. [276], A rival claimant to the throne, Idris bin Abdullah al-Senussi, announced in an interview with Adnkronos that he was ready to return to Libya and "assume leadership" once change had been initiated. [314] The rebels were reported as estimating 400 people had been killed and a further 2,000 injured in the battle. By this time, over 300 to 2,000 were dead and over 5,000 were injured. His speech was said to have caused a stir. [357] In early March, the fighting across Libya meant that more than a million people fleeing or inside the country needed humanitarian aid. [130], The protests would lead to an uprising and civil war, as part of the wider Arab Spring,[131][132] which had already resulted in the ousting of long-term presidents of adjacent Tunisia and Egypt. Dozens of them were arrested. [306] On 9 June 2011, some negotiators from NTC arrived in Beijing to have negotiations with the Chinese government. [203], In June 2011, a more detailed investigation by Amnesty International found that many of the allegations against Gaddafi and the Libyan state turned out to be false or to lack any credible evidence, saying that rebels at times appeared to have knowingly made false claims or manufactured evidence. War wounded were estimated as at least 50,000, of which about 20,000 were serious injuries, but this estimate was expected to rise. Gaddafi said that he had not yet ordered the use of force, and threatened that "everything will burn" when he did. [351][352] Others maintain the opposite position, arguing that the available legal tests for "deinternationalisation" are unpersuasive and introduce vague and politicized criteria that cannot be satisfactorily considered in the heat of the battle. Many Libyans were inspired by the uprisings in neighbouring countries, such as Tunisia and Egypt. [342] In addition their data shows that between 152 and 168 civilians were deliberately killed by the pro-Gaddafi forces in 2011.[343]. [219] Video footage purporting to show this started to leak out of the country. Voters Back Obama's Decision To Establish No-Fly Zone in Libya", "Qatar, several EU states up for Libya action: diplomat", "Paris Summit Talks To Launch Military Action in Libya", "Libya: President Obama Gives Gaddafi Ultimatum", "Libya: RAF Jets Join Attack on Air Defence Systems", "Deal Puts NATO at Head of Libyan Operation", "Libya No-Fly Zone Leadership Squabbles Continue Within Nato", "Phoenix:Russia government recognized The NTC of Libya as a legitimate dialogue partner", "Rebels dismiss election offer, NATO pounds Tripoli", "Gaddafi's son: Libya like McDonald's for NATO – fast war as fast food", "Gaddafi's rule crumbling as rebels enter heart of Tripoli", "Libyan rebel forces penetrate Qaddafi's compound", "Rebels Hunt Qaddafi; Journalists in Hotel Are Free", "Libya: Gaddafi son spotted in Bani Walid as heavy fighting continues", "Libyan rebels discover Gaddafi's chemical weapons", "Gaddafi determined to avoid Saddam Hussein's fate", "Ferocious fighting in Sirte as NTC tightens grip – Channel 4 News", "Gaddafi loyalists stranded as battle for Sirte rages", "Sina:Russia government recognized The NTC of Libya as the only Legal regime in Libya", "China denies report, says it did not sell weapons to Libya", "China Sought to Sell Arms to Qaddafi, Documents Suggest", "Libyans say China, Europe sent arms to Gaddafi", "spokeswoman of Chinese Foreign Ministry-Ma Chaoxu said China recognized The NTC of Libya as the only Legal regime in Libya", "Sohu:The Libyan NTC said it will be a very hardship environment to a China, Russia or India oil company to acquired a new exploration contract", "Fresh clashes in Libya's Bani Walid; U.N. says 7,000 held in militia prisons", "Abdul Jalil appoints head of Libyan armed forces, warns of civil war", "Deadly clash of militias in Libyan capital Tripoli", "Will new army chief end the bloodshed in Libya? Libyan security forces fired live ammunition into the armed protests. Nothing else. Libyan authorities also argued that no one in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya suffered from extreme poverty and hunger, and that the government guaranteed a minimum of food and essential needs to people with low incomes. [102][104], Gaddafi said that he planned to combat corruption in the state by proposing reforms where oil profits are handed out directly to the country's five million people[105] rather than to government bodies, stating that "as long as money is administered by a government body, there would be theft and corruption. "[119] That same year, the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya issued the Great Green Document on Human Rights, in which Article 5 established laws that allowed greater freedom of expression. Fighter Plane Sculpture, International reactions to military intervention, International reactions to Gaddafi's death, United Nations General Assembly Resolution 65/265, United Nations Security Council Resolution 2009, United Nations Security Council Resolution 2016, National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, National Coordination Committee for Democratic Change, Sudanese nomadic conflicts (2009–present), Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile (2011–present), Communal conflicts in Nigeria (1998–present), Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (1987–present), Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict (2000–2018), Allied Democratic Forces insurgency (1996–present),, Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Africa, Wars involving the states and peoples of Africa, Articles with dead external links from November 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with failed verification from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2012, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from January 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 05:38. The Libyan Civil War was a civil war in Libya during the year 2011. "[106] Gaddafi urged a sweeping reform of the government bureaucracy, suggesting that most of the cabinet system should be dismantled to "free Libyans from red tape" and "protect the state's budget from corruption". Al-Saadi Gaddafi (POW) The ambassadors to the Arab League, European Union and United Nations have either resigned or stated that they no longer support the government. [120], The Green Book, which Gaddafi authored in the 1970s, was for years the principal text of political education. Bombing sites are recycled. They violently protested against the government. [115][116] Until the mid-1980s, Libya's intelligence service conducted assassinations of Libyan dissidents around the world. [74] Eight NTC fighters were killed and at least 25 wounded, with the rest fleeing the city. [129] In early February, Gaddafi, on behalf of the Jamahiriya, met with political activists, journalists and media figures and warned them that they would be held responsible if they disturbed the peace or created chaos in Libya. The group released a song just before the uprising entitled "Like My Father Always Says" to ridicule an autocratic fictional male head of a family which was a veiled reference to Colonel Gaddafi. In the aftermath of the civil war, a low-level insurgency by former Gaddafi loyalists continued. [68], In August, rebel forces launched an offensive on the government-held coast of Libya, backed by a wide-reaching NATO bombing campaign, taking back territory lost months before and ultimately capturing the capital city of Tripoli,[69] while Gaddafi evaded capture and loyalists engaged in a rearguard campaign. The plan included abolishing all ministries except those of defence, internal security, and foreign affairs, and departments implementing strategic projects. [154], An anonymous hip hop artist called Ibn Thabit gave a voice to "disenfranchised Libyans looking for a non-violent way to express their political will". The United Nations Security Council passed an initial resolution on 26 February, freezing the assets of Gaddafi and his inner circle and restricting their travel, and referred the matter to the International Criminal Court for investigation. He also promised that international monitors would be included to ensure fair elections. [130][146][147] The National Conference for the Libyan Opposition asked that all groups opposed to the Gaddafi government protest on 17 February in memory of demonstrations in Benghazi five years earlier. [163] Former Jamahiriya Justice Minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil said in February that the new government would prepare for elections and they could be held in three months.

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